Welcoming the New Year
Welcome to 2019.
Let’s take a look back at the issues that we covered during the last year.
Our attention has been focused mainly on vocabulary To enrich your vocabulary I suggested reading an English newspaper regularly. I hope at least some of you have been following my advice faithfully. That, I say again, is the best way to acquire the vocabulary in common use these days.
Besides this general suggestion I also presented some specific items of vocabulary like Phrasal Verbs and words used with various meanings.
I hope you benefited from those exercises in the use of vocabulary.
Those of you who would like to read my previous English posts can easily find them at minawali.org There you can see all my posts from 2015 onward: with thanks Professor Munawar Ali Malik – 1 Jan 2019
Some interesting uses of GO :
- Salt doesn’t go into sweet dishes.
( doesn’t go into = is not used )
2. The business was in poor condition, but he made a go of it.
( make a go of = manage successfully )
3. I bought a blue shirt to go with my new jeans.
( go with = match )
4. This old car won’t go for even Rs 200000.
( go for = sell for ). with thanks Professor Munawar Ali Malik – 3 Jan 2019
Some useful combinations of STAND :
1. A diesel generator is a good standby during load-shedding.
( standby = something ready for use in emergency / a substitute )
2. The standoff between Pakistan and India over Kashmir is a threat to peace in South Asia.
( standoff = deadlock / a situation in which neither of the two opposing forces steps back )
3. Yasir Shah is a standout among bowlers.
( standout = better than others )
4. Faiz Ahmed Faiz is an outstanding Urdu poet of this age.
( outstanding = prominent )
5. He borrowed money to pay the outstanding gas bills.
( outstanding = unpaid / overdue ). with thanks Professor Munawar Ali Malik – 4 Jan 2019
Some useful combinations of UP:
1. His upbeat mood showed that his interview went off very well.
( upbeat = cheerful / hopeful )
2, The government must not ignore the uproar against load-shedding.
( uproar = loud protest )
3. Immediate action is required to uproot the increasing use of drugs.
( uproot = eliminate / wipe out )
4. The upshot of the discussion was that the idea of building a new hospital was dropped.
( upshot = surprising result )
5. An upstart can’t be trusted as an expert businessman.
( upstart = inexperienced / immature person ). with thanks Professor Munawar Ali Malik – 7 Jan 2019
IMPORTANT : The vocabulary-building exercises that we are doing these days are very important. The words and phrases that I give you are used across the world. They can help you in speaking and writing smart English in the latest style.
Those of you who joined this class late can update their knowledge by reading my posts over the past few months. All my posts are available on my timeline.
Here are some more combinations of UP :
1. We must uphold the dignity of Pakistan wherever we live.
( uphold = maintain / assert / support )
2. Are you prepared for the upcoming examination ?
( upcoming = coming soon / in near future )
3. He was upset about his health.
( upset = worried )
4. The final match against New Zealand was a big upset for Pakistan.
( upset = defeat / disappointment )
5. Quaid-e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was the only thoroughly upright leader in our history.
( upright = honest / incorruptible ) with thanks Professor Munawar Ali Malik – 8 Jan 2019
Some combinations of OVER :
1. His overbearing attitude annoyed me, so I refused to work with him.
( overbearing = threatening / forcing to do something )
2. I couldn’t overcome my anger on hearing his abusive remark.
( overcome = control )
3. Anything can be harmful if you overdo it.
( overdo = do more than normal )
4. I was asked to oversee the work in progress.
( oversee = supervise ) with thanks Professor Munawar Ali Malik – 9 Jan 2019
Some combinations of TAKE :
1. The doctor advised him to reduce intake of sugar.
( intake = quantity of eating or drinking )
2. You can learn English easily because you are quick on the uptake.
( uptake = understanding )
3. I undertook to complete the task in a week.
( undertake = to accept responsibility )
4. The police car overtook the bus and stopped it.
( overtake = to pass or cross a person or vehicle moving in the same direction )
5.Military takeovers have done more harm than good to Pakistan.
( takeover = taking control by force / martial law ). with thanks Professor Munawar Ali Malik – 10 Jan 2019
Some idiomatic uses of TAKE :
1. Take it from me that you can’t do this job.
( take it from me = I assure you )
2. I believe that he is sincere to you, take it or leave it.
( take it or leave it = accept it or not / agree or not )
3. Take my word for it, the plan will fail.
( take my word for it = I assure you )
4. Don’t take your father’s angry words to heart. He is worried about your future.
( take to heart = mind / to be disappointed ) with thanks Professor Munawar Ali Malik – 11 Jan 2019
The word ABLE is used in various forms. For instance :
1. Disabled by the accident, he could move about only in a wheel-chair.
( disabled = handicapped / physically unable to move about or work normally )
2. Loss of eyesight is a serious form of disability.
( disability = handicap / loss of ability to move about freely or work normally)
3. Sorry, I’m unable to attend your Waleema because I’m busy.
( unable = not able )
4. I’m sorry for my inability to see you because I have to attend a meeting at the office.
( inability = being unable )
5. My knowledge of computer enabled me to collect the data for my work quickly.
( enable = to make possible / to give an opportunity ) with thanks Professor Munawar Ali Malik – 12 Jan 2019
A PREFIX is a letter or group of letters added at the start of a word to make a new word. For instance
incomplete = in+complete = not complete
The Prefix IN is usually used to make words of opposite meaning like
inactive = not active
indecent = not decent / foul or vulgar
ineffective = not effective
infallible = not fallible / a person who never makes a mistake
injustice = unfair decision or action
There are many other words with IN as Prefix. Please note that there in no specific rule of grammar for the use of Prefixes. It is entirely a matter of usage. with thanks Professor Munawar Ali Malik – 13 Jan 2019
UN is a very commonly used Prefix. Like IN, it too gives an opposite meaning to the word with which it combines. For instance :
unable = not able
unbecoming = not suitable
uncovered = not covered / exposed
unequal = not equal
unfavourable = not favourable
unhappy = not happy
unimportant = not important
Could you give 5 more examples to show the use of UN as a Prefix ? with thanks Professor Munawar Ali Malik – 14 Jan 2019
Like IN and UN, DIS is also used as a Prefix. It too gives a negative meaning to the word with which it combines. For instance
disagree = not agree = differ
disband = disunite / bust/ break up
discharge = deprive of charge / sack / dismiss from service
(NOTE : discharge is also used to mean perform or do, like discharge a duty).
dishonest : not honest
disengage = cut off / separate
dislike = not like
Please note that in some words DIS is not a Prefix. It is a part of those words, like
discipline, discretion , distance, distort etc with thanks Professor Munawar Ali Malik – 15 Jan 2019
Prepositions ( in, on, at, for, with etc ) are used for various purposes. Grammar has no control over Prepositions. It does not lay down any specific rules for the use of Prepositions.
Look at the following uses of FOR :
1. I bought this book for 170 rupees.
2. I exchanged my Honda bike for a Yamaha.
3. The dog went for the cat.
( go for = attack ) with thanks Professor Munawar Ali Malik – 16 Jan 2019
English is unique for variety of expression. You can convey the same idea, feeling, or information in more than one ways. For instance, all the sentences given below have the same meaning :
- I couldn’t play the match, as I was injured.
2. As I was injured, I couldn’t play the match.
3. Being injured, I couldn’t play the match.
4. I couldn’t play the match, because I was injured.
5. I couldn’t play the match, for I was injured.
6 . I couldn’t play the match, since I was injured.
7. Since I was injured, I couldn’t play the match.
8. I was injured. Hence I couldn’t play the match, with thanks Professor Munawar Ali Malik – 17 Jan 2019
HAD is the Past and Past Participle form of HAVE / HAS. Generally it is used for Past Perfect Tense and refers to the earlier of two actions that happen in the past . For instance.
When I reached the station, the train had left.
This is, however, ordinary use of HAD. There are some others, for instance :
I had had tea when he arrived.
The first HAD is used because it is a sentence of Past Perfect Tense. The second HAD means taken or drunk, as ‘ to have’ means to eat or drink.
I have changed my method of teaching a bit, to see how far you can follow me. Do you understand what I have said above ? with thanks Professor Munawar Ali Malik – 18 Jan 2019
Some more uses of HAD :
1. Had I known about your illness, I would have reached the hospital immediately.
( had I = if I had )
2. I knew that I had to do this.
( had to = Past form of MUST )
3. I had rather you stopped calling me again and again.
( had rather = would prefer )
4. You had better consult a specialist.
( had better = ought to / should )
Note the use of Present form of Verb ( consult ) in sentence 4. with thanks Professor Munawar Ali Malik – 19 Jan 2019
It was a pleasant surprise for me.
Usama Atta, a Second Year student of PAF College, Mianwali , came to see me with his father last week. His father told me Usama wanted me to see his English poetry and give my opinion about it.
English poetry written by a Mianwalian student !!!!
I could hardly believe what I heard. But I had to believe when I saw it. Here before me were half a dozen pages of sweetly worded, neatly composed verse of very good quality. There were 6 poems. They were pleasant reading, indeed. I saw that the young man is blessed with rich poetic talent.
Glitches are quite natural at initial stage. but I found very few in Usama’s poetry.
Here are a few lines from the poem titled “The Mourning Palestine” to give you a glimpse of this nice poetry :
There’s a place, named Palestine
This was the place where peace dwelt
Where love and happiness always shined.
Where hope and belief were combined,
The home of Prophets, where the shrine existed
But suddenly the clouds of despair prevailed
Surprisingly brilliant, isn’t it ? But those who know my Mianwali, know that ours is a land of surprises.
With extensive study of English poetry and a bit of proper guidance Usama can certainly make his mark as a remarkable poet. Let’s wish him a happy career, with thanks Professor Munawar Ali Malik – 21 Jan 2019
Here’s a little word-building exercise:
Make Nouns from the Verbs given below :
remove with thanks Professor Munawar Ali Malik – 22 Jan 2019
Make Nouns from the given Adjectives :
vain with thanks Professor Munawar Ali Malik – 23 Jan 2019
Could you make Verbs from the following Adjectives ?
wide with thanks Professor Munawar Ali Malik – 24 Jan 2019
Let’s see how you handle this one.
Make Verbs from the given Nouns :
pollution with thanks Professor Munawar Ali Malik – 25 Jan 2019
Present and Past Participle forms of Verb are often used as Adjectives . For instance
Could you give 2 more examples of each type ( two examples of Present and two of Past Participle used as Adjectives ) ? with thanks Professor Munawar Ali Malik -26 Jan 2019
Present Participle form of Verb is also used as Noun. For example :
Could you give 3 more examples of Present Participle form of Verb commonly used as Noun ?. with thanks Professor Munawar Ali Malik – 27 Jan 2019
The role of Present Participle form of Verb ( as Verb, Adjective or Noun ) is determined by its use in a phrase or sentence. For instance :
1. I saw him sitting on a sofa near the door.
( sitting = Verb )
2. The sitting Chief Minister was summoned by the court for clarification.
( sitting = Adjective )
Note : sitting as Adjective means present, For instance, Mr Usman Buzdar is the sitting CM of Punjab.
3. The Chairman said the matter would be decided at the next sitting of the committee.
( sitting = Noun )
Note : sitting as Noun means meeting.
Could you give some more examples of this type ? with thanks Professor Munawar Ali Malik – 28 Jan 2019
A glimpse of variety of expression :All these sentences have exactly the same meaning.
We’ll leave for Lahore on Sunday.
We are leaving for Lahore on Sunday.
We”ll be leaving for Lahore on Sunday.
We leave for Lahore on Sunday. with thanks Professor Munawar Ali Malik – 29 Jan 2019
Use of Present Simple and Present Continuous forms of Verb as Future Tense needs care. It has to be justified by a time word or phrase like today, tomorrow, this evening, next week etc. For instance :
1. I leave for Lahore today.
2. He arrives here next week.
3, Our school is opening tomorrow,
4, They are coming here next Monday. with thanks Professor Munawar Ali Malik – 30 Jan 2019